Tuberculosis is a disease that has been prevalent for many years. It is still existent in the world around us due to human unawareness and negligence. Tuberculosis is considered one of the top ten causes of death in India. It is an airborne disease that is caused by bacterial infections.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in bone TB symptoms in a healthy individual. The leading site of infection for bone TB symptoms is the lungs and respiratory tract. It can spread to other organs such as bones and joints. When tuberculosis spreads to other organs, it is known as extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Bone tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and it spreads to the spine, bones and joints. The bone tuberculosis symptoms are similar to traditional tuberculosis in many ways. It can easily infect bones and joints, including other organ systems also. As this disease is airborne, it can spread through cough, sneeze, laugh, etc. Bone tuberculosis symptoms can destroy the different tissues of the body.
The incidence of bone tuberculosis is rare. It is somehow complicated to diagnose this problem. Traditional approaches are used to identify the causes which can lead to many problems in the human body. The signs and symptoms of tuberculosis of the bone through which it can get diagnosed are given below:
- Stiffness in back and joints
- Swelling in joints
- Intense and consistent back pain
- The bone tuberculosis symptoms are evident when your tuberculosis has not reached the advanced stage.
The cases where your disease has reached the advanced stage show different symptoms. The bone TB symptoms at the advanced stage are mentioned below:
- Deformities in bones
- Shortening of a limb in children
- Neurological problems
Patients who suffer from tuberculosis may not experience traditional bone TB symptoms. The signs and symptoms they experience include:
- Unexplained blood loss
- Loss of appetite
- Consistent fever, especially low grade
- Severe chills
- Night sweat
- Constant fatigue and extreme level of tiredness
- Blood in cough
- Acute chest pain
- A dense cough lasting more than three works
Tuberculosis is considered a contagious disease. People with bone tuberculosis symptoms may experience cough, sneeze, chest pain, etc. and should diagnose it with the help of health professionals as fast as possible. The risk factor changes from person to person. People who belong to the below-mentioned categories have higher risks of getting infected with tuberculosis:
- People living in hospitals or nursing home
- Colleagues of the infected individuals
- Close friends of the infected
- Family of the infected patients
People who have immune system problems are also at a higher risk of getting infected. Patients who experience bone TB symptoms and have the below-mentioned conditions have higher chances of being diagnosed with TB:
- Substance users
- Chain smokers
- Malnourished or underweight people
- People suffering from autoimmune disorders
- Cancer patients
- Organs transplant patients
- HIV/aids patients
- People suffering from diabetes
- People suffering from kidney diseases
- Babies and children with developing immune systems
If you cannot diagnose your problems in time, it can lead to several complications. The damage caused by TB and bone TB symptoms is irreversible and life-threatening. The treatment procedures for bone tuberculosis can last for up to 18 months. The treatment includes making lifestyle changes, getting medications and using various therapies. Patients diagnosed with bone tuberculosis will be asked to limit the usage of alcohol, tobacco and tobacco products, caffeine, refined food and packed foods.
Many cases are reported every year in India, but the correct methods to identify and diagnose the condition is still unclear. It generally happens because patients fail to recognize their symptoms. Hence everyone should follow the safety protocols to prevent tuberculosis.
There are various kinds of bone tuberculosis. Different forms are mentioned below:
- Tuberculosis of upper extremity
- Tuberculosis of ankle joint
- Tuberculosis of knee joint
- Tuberculosis of elbow
- Tuberculosis of hip joint
- Tuberculosis of spine
CAUSES OF TUBERCULOSIS
The leading causes of tuberculosis include improper hygiene, transmission from the infected individuals and inappropriate treatment. Tuberculosis generally occurs due to bacterial infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this infection and infects the lungs.
The primary cause of tuberculosis is mentioned below:
- Improper treatment
If you are not diagnosed on time, then the infection can spread to your lungs and other parts of the body. So proper treatment is required before the condition worsens. Bone TB symptoms are evident from early stages, so one should be careful about their health.
It is a contagious disease that can quickly spread from one person to another. Hence patients should take care of their health and get checked by a doctor once they recognise bone TB symptoms.
The causative agent for TB is tuberculosis. It spreads due to air droplets, so it will attack the lungs when it gets inside the human body. It can further cause damage to lymph nodes, thymus and bones. Therefore patients should identify the bone TB symptoms and sign to start the treatment on time.
The treatment for tuberculosis can be time consuming and painful. The damage caused by it is reversible. If diagnosed at the correct time, therapy can help improve all possible problems caused by it. The treatment procedure includes:
At advanced stages and other stages where professionals cannot treat bone TB symptoms through medications, your surgeon will recommend surgery. Surgery can be a painful process but surely will be beneficial.
Several drugs can be used for treating this problem. The duration of the drug therapy can last from 6 to 18 months. The most common medications include antibacterial and antimicrobial.
- Preventive measures
Avoiding alcohol, tobacco, refined products, greasy foods, and packed food can help retain this disease.
- MDR therapy
MDR therapy involves the consumption of antitubercular drugs. It is the most beneficial treatment for the bone to overcome the symptoms and signs.
- DOTS therapy
It is also known as Direct Observed Treatment therapy. It is highly recommended in patients suffering from bone TB symptoms. It can be treated with antitubercular drugs.
- XDR TB
Also known as drug-resistant tuberculosis. It involves the resistance to the causative agent of tuberculosis, which is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It includes the functions of second-line drugs in tuberculosis. The second line drugs include thiazides, aminoglycosides, polypeptides, para a monocyclic acid and tetracyclines.
If you are experiencing any of the signs and symptoms of TB, you may consider consulting with a specialist who can help find the cause and offer the proper treatment. Remember, the effects of TB are irreversible.